Tag Archives: aromatherapy

Are Lavender and Tea Tree Oils Estrogenic?

You may recall the results of a study stating that lavender and tea tree oils caused the development of breast tissue (prepubertal gynecomastia) in three young boys (aged four, seven and ten). This singular study was first published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2007.1 All three boys had used skin care products containing lavender and tea tree oils, and were all diagnosed by the same doctor.

If you take a close look at the study, some issues are raised. The solvent used to dilute the oils was dimethyl sulfoxide, which is an estrogen mimicker.2 The full list of ingredients in these products were not mentioned, nor the possible chemicals included in the packaging of the products. Parabens were likely included in the ingredients and phthalates in the packaging. In a recent study, diethyl phthalate was found in 103 out of 252 products, which included fragrances, hair care products, deodorants, nail polishes, lotions, skin cleansers and baby products.3 Both phthalates and parabens have been shown to have an estrogenicity presence.4&5

A number of researchers and doctors have raised some questions regarding the validity of this study. There were three doctors, who made the following comments:

“The study by Henley et al. (Feb. 1 issue)1 raises many questions. Product names were not provided. Did the authors contact manufacturers to report concerns or ask about constituents? The variability, adulteration, and contamination of herbal products have been widely reported,2,3 as have discrepancies between labels and contents.4 Plastic containers may contain phthalates, known endocrine disrupters.5 What was actually in the products cited in this report?

None of the hormonal testing showed abnormal results, except in Patient 2, who had elevated levels of testosterone (not estrogen). There was no report on ultrasound examination or needle biopsy, nor were subsequent weight changes reported. Might the patients’ gynecomastia have reflected another pathophysiological process that resolved spontaneously?

Traditional use and clinical trials have not suggested estrogenic effects of tea tree or lavender oil, though estrogenic effects have been reported for other essential oils and plants. Are occupational exposures to lavender and tea tree associated with estrogenic symptoms? In vitro testing alone is not adequate grounds for indicting traditionally used products and may raise public fear.”

Kathi J. Kemper, M.D., M.P.H.
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157
Aviva J. Romm
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510
Paula Gardiner, M.D., M.P.H.
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215
1. Henley DV, Lipson N, Korach KS, Bloch CA. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. N Engl J Med 2007;356:479-485
2. Homer LE, Leach DN, Lea D, Slade Lee L, Henry RJ, Baverstock PR. Natural variation in the essential oil content of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol 2000;28:367-382
3. Keane FM, Munn SE, du Vivier AW, Taylor NF, Higgins EM. Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions. BMJ 1999;318:563-564
4. Garrard J, Harms S, Eberly LE, Matiak A. Variations in product choices of frequently purchased herbs: caveat emptor. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:2290-229
5. Schettler T. Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products. Int J Androl 2006;29:134-139

A Canadian doctor also had made some comments regarding the study:

“Henley et al. do a commendable job of sleuthing out the likely cause of prepubertal gynecomastia in the young boys exposed to either lavender or tea tree oil. However, given that estrogenic compounds have yet to be detected in either oil, it is important that we carefully interpret these important findings. A growing number of endocrine disrupters in our environment have been shown to accumulate in adipose tissue.1,2 A number of such industrial by-products have also been implicated in early thelarche.3 Since these molecules with hormone-modulating activity are fat soluble, topically applied oils may serve as very efficient delivery agents for environmental endocrine disrupters by concentrating them and delivering them into cells. Although Henley et al. attempt to show that these oils have estrogenic activity, the results of their reported assays indicate a very weak effect. It would be bewildering if such relatively low hormonal activity alone could instigate prepubertal gynecomastia.”

Shirin Kalyan, Ph.D.
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada
1. Paris F, Jeandel C, Servant N, Sultan C. Increased serum estrogenic bioactivity in three male newborns with ambiguous genitalia: a potential consequence of prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors. Environ Res 2006;100:39-43
2. Brevini TA, Zanetto SB, Cillo F. Effects of endocrine disruptors on developmental and reproductive functions. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord 2005;5:1-10
3. Colon I, Caro D, Bourdony CJ, Rosario O. Identification of phthalate esters in the serum of young Puerto Rican girls with premature breast development. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108:895-900

A later study, completed in Denmark, showed that none of the bioavailable tea tree oil constituents demonstrated estrogenicity.6 Bioavailability is the rate, or degree, at which a drug or other substance is absorbed.

Based on the above commentaries and personal experience, I feel that both tea tree and lavender essential oils are safe to use. Many baby care products contain lavender, for its sedative, calming properties. It’s great that essential oils and natural ingredients are being researched, but we shouldn’t be jumping to conclusions after the results of only one study.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP
___________________________________________________________________

1. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. Henley DV, Lipson N, Korach KS, Bloch CA. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 1;356(5):479-85. PMID: 17267908 2. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor isoforms and xenoestrogen biomarker responses in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes. Mortensen AS, Arukwe A. Aquat Toxicol. 2006 Aug 12;79(1):99-103. Epub 2006 Jun 3. PMID: 16828892 3. Phthalates in cosmetic and personal care products: concentrations and possible dermal exposure. Koniecki D, Wang R, Moody RP, Zhu J. Environ Res. 2011 Apr;111(3):329-36. PMID: 21315328 4. Toxic effects of the easily avoidable phthalates and parabens. Crinnion WJ. Altern Med Rev. 2010 Sep;15(3):190-6. PMID: 21155623 5.  Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies. Jurewicz J, Hanke W. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2011 Jun;24(2):115-41. PMID: 21594692 6.  What you see may not always be what you get–bioavailability and extrapolation from in vitro tests. Nielsen JB. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008 Jun;22(4):1038-42. PMID: 18255254


	

Essential Oils for Summer Ailments

 

Summer is a season of fruition and beauty and many herbs, flowers and trees are at their peak. As we spend more time outdoors, the effects heat and humidity, insects and the sun are affecting us. Essential oils and hydrosols can bring relief to common ailments such as burns, sunstroke, bites, stings, sore muscles, poison ivy/oak contact and allergies.

Sunburn
Most citrus essential oils are photosensitive, so direct sunlight should be avoided, after their use. As some essential oils decrease the amount of time the skin takes to burn, others protect our skin. Many vegetable based carrier oils, and rose essential oil, have a natural sun protection factor of SPF 6 – SPF 8. These oils include coconut, sweet almond, olive, safflower and sesame. If a burn does occur, recommended essential oils and hydrosols include lavender, chamomile (German or Roman), helichrysum (immortelle), geranium and witch hazel. Hydrosols can be sprayed directly on the area. Note that these plants can help with other skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, cuts and bruises.

Hydrosols can bring quick relief, as there is not always the need to dilute as with essential oils. Use liberally on the face, arms and legs for relief from a specific ailment, from the heat or to refresh. A small bottle can be kept on you, in a purse, a bag or the car. Hydrosols can be taken internally, with 30ml diluted in 1L of distilled or spring water, and enjoyed throughout the day. A three-week course, with one week off, is recommended.

Natural Insect Repellent
Natural insect repellents such as cedar, citronella, eucalyptus, fleabane, geranium, lemongrass, peppermint, rosemary and sweet gale essential oils and hydrosols can be used, as oppose to the controversial chemical known as DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide). A combination of the above can be used in a water, lotion or oil based repellent. Some, including children, find the oil based repellent sticky and do not like the feel of the oil on their skin, but it has longer lasting effects. Essentials oils generally do not deter stinging insects such as bees and wasps. After being bitten, the essential oils of tea tree, lavender, geranium, lemon and peppermint, lemon juice and witch hazel can be applied to sooth and take away the itch.

Poison Ivy/Oak
If you are unfortunate and come into contact with poison ivy, it is important to wash the sap (urushiol) from the area as soon as possible. Be sure not to take a bath, which will spread the urushiol to other areas of the body. Tea tree essential oil can be applied neat on the rash and taken internally in hydrosol form. Sweet fern and yarrow are other hydrosols, which can be applied topically. These plants, as well as geranium, will relieve the itching and irritation.

Allergies
Allergies can affect sufferers in late summer and into the autumn. There are essential oils and hydrosols that have anti-histamine, anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties.  Essential oils, combined with the internal use of hydrosols, can bring relief. These include chamomile, green myrtle, elecampane, eucalyptus, niaouli and peppermint.

First Aid Kit
A basic first aid kit, for the summer, can be made easily and should include the following:

Gauze
Bandages
Tea tree essential oil
Lavender essential oil
Witch hazel hydrosol

Tea tree is anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral, and can be applied to cuts, insect bites, scrapes, warts and cold sores. Lavender is anti-septic, soothing and sedating, and can be used for burns, sunburns, insect bites and headaches/migraines. Witch hazel is anti-inflammatory, anti-septic and astringent, and can be used for burns, sunburns, bruises and insect bites.

As you enjoy the summer, keep essentials oils and hydrosols in mind. A pampering peppermint foot lotion may even be in order, for those dry, overworked feet!

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP

__________________________________________________________________

1. An in vitro evaluation of various Rosa damascena flower extracts as a natural antisolar agent. Tabrizi H, Mortazavi SA, Kamalinejad M. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2003 Dec;25(6):259-65. PMID: 18494908
2. An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing. Jarrahi M. Nat Prod Res. 2008 Mar 20;22(5):422-7. PMID: 18404562
3. Anti-inflammatory efficacy of topical preparations with 10% hamamelis distillate in a UV erythema test. Hughes-Formella BJ, Filbry A, Gassmueller J, Rippke F. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Mar-Apr;15(2):125-32. PMID: 11867970
4. Repellency of essential oils to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Barnard DR. J Med Entomol. 1999 Sep;36(5):625-9. PMID: 10534958
5. Bioactivity against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils grown in Colombia. Olivero-Verbel J, Nerio LS, Stashenko EE. Pest Manag Sci. 2010 Jun;66(6):664-8. PMID: 20205230
6. Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes. Müller GC, Junnila A, Butler J, Kravchenko VD, Revay EE, Weiss RW, Schlein Y. J Vector Ecol. 2009 Jun;34(1):2-8. PMID: 20836800
7. Biological activities of yarrow species (Achillea spp.). Nemeth E, Bernath J. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(29):3151-67. PMID: 19075697
8. Hydrosols: The Next Aromatherapy. Suzanne Catty. Healing Arts Press, 2001.


Benefits of Tea Tree Oil

This is the first post in a series, to introduce the most commonly used essential oils. Common facts about tea tree oil (melaleuca alternafolia):

– the melaleuca plant is part of the Myrtaceae family
– the most common plant is a small shrub or tree
– this plant is indigenous to Australia, but is now grown in many other countries
– the leaves are steam distilled, to obtain the essential oil
– it’s scent is medicinal and herbal

Tea tree oil is best known for it’s antibacterial 2,3&4, antifungal9 and antiviral5&6 properties. It has shown to be effective against Staphylococcus strains, including MRSA, and Streptococcus strains.10 If using the oil neat (undiluted) it may irritate sensitive skin, so it’s recommended that a patch test be done prior to use.

There are a number of ailments, of which the use of tea tree oil can aid in recovery:

Acne (acne vulgaris): apply a drop of oil directly to the affected area, add to a natural facial cleanser, or add to distilled water to make a facial toner.11&13

Athletes Foot (tinea pedis): after cleaning your feet well, apply the oil neat to the affected area, add a few drops to a foot bath or add a few drops to a lotion or baking soda base, and apply to the feet.14&15

Chicken pox: as tea tree oil relieves itching, it can be applied to the rash and blisters.

Colds and ‘Flu: the oil can be applied on the back, chest and feet in a lotion base, along with other expectorant and antiviral oils such as eucalyptus and thyme.4&5

Cold sores (herpes labialis): apply a couple drops of oil directly to the sore with a cotton swab.6

Cuts and scrapes: the oil can be applied neat to the area then covered with a bandage.

Gum inflammation: 3-5 drops of oil can be added to a cup of water. To improve the taste of the tea tree, peppermint essential oil can also be added. Be sure not to swallow the mixture. As well, to clean your toothbrush, add one drop of tea tree oil.1&2

Insect Bites: add tea tree oil directly to the bite, to disinfect the area and help with the itching. (including flea, mosquito, horse fly bites).

Lice: the oil can be added to a gentle, unscented shampoo and conditioner.8 A few drops can also be added to the laundry when bedding is washed. Be sure you’re combing through your or your child’s hair with a finely toothed metal comb.

Sinuses: as above for colds.4

Warts: apply a drop of oil, neat, directly to the wart.3

Yeast infections (candidiasis or thrush): add 7-10 drops of oil to a bath, up to your pelvic bone, and soak for 10-15 minutes. A few drops can also be added to a panty liner.9&10

Additional types of infections include eczema7, herpes simplex6, nail infections, ringworm, earaches, allergies12 and scabies, for which tea tree oil can be beneficial.

It is also great for cleaning, if you would like to avoid the chemicals found in many commercial cleaning products. It can be used for mold, in a general cleaning spray, added to the dishwater, added to the laundry and used in an antiseptic spray.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP

1. Effect of mouthwashing with tea tree oil on plaque and inflammation. Saxer UP, Stauble A, Szabo SH, Menghini G. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2003;113(9):985-96. PMID: 14567294
2. Susceptibility of oral bacteria to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in vitro. Hammer KA, Dry L, Johnson M, Michalak EM, Carson CF, Riley TV. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2003 Dec;18(6):389-92. PMID: 14622345
3. Successful topical treatment of hand warts in a paediatric patient with tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia). Millar BC, Moore JE. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2008 Nov: 14(4):225-7. PMID: 18940708
4. Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. Shigeharu Inouye, Toshio Takizawa and Hideyo Yamaguchi. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2001) 47, 565-573.
5. In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. Gazozzo A, Timpanaro R, Bisignano B, Ferneri PM, Bisignano G, Castro A. Department of Microbiological and Gynaecological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. PMID: 19843207
6. Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils. Astani A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Phytother Res. 2009 Aug 3. PMID: 19653195
7. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis. Wallengren J. Arch Dermatol Res. 2010 Sep 24. PMID: 20865268
8. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children–melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a “suffocation” product. Barker SC, Altman PM. BMC Dermatol. 2010 Aug 20;10:6. PMID: 20727129
9. Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation by antimycotics released from modified polydimethyl siloxane. De Prijck K, De Smet N, Honraet K, Christiaen S, Coenye T, Schacht E, Nelis HJ. Mycopathologia. 2010 Mar;169(3):167-74. PMID: 19774486
10. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections. Warnke PH, Becker ST, Podschun R, Sivananthan S, Springer IN, Russo PA, Wiltfang J, Fickenscher H, Sherry E. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009 Oct;37(7):392-7. PMID: 19473851
11. The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Enshaieh S, Jooya A, Siadat AH, Iraji F. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007 Jan-Feb;73(1):22-5. PMID: 17314442
12. Tea tree oil reduces histamine-induced skin inflammation. Koh KJ, Pearce AL, Marshman G, Finlay-Jones JJ, Hart PH. Br J Dermatol. 2002 Dec;147(6):1212-7. PMID: 12452873
13. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne. Bassett IB, Pannowitz DL, Barnetson RS. Med J Aust. 1990 Oct 15;153(8):455-8. PMID: 2145499
14. A novel aromatic oil compound inhibits microbial overgrowth on feet: a case study. Misner BD. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Jul 13;4:3. PMID: 17908343
15. Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis with 25% and 50% tea tree oil solution: a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study. Satchell AC, Saurajen A, Bell C, Barnetson RS. Australas J Dermatol. 2002 Aug;43(3):175-8. PMID: 12121393

Essential oils in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative disease of the brain, which causes thinking and memory to become seriously impaired. It is the most common form of dementia. Dementia is a syndrome consisting of a number of symptoms that include loss of memory, judgment and reasoning, and changes in mood, behaviour and communication abilities.1

There has been research to support the use of essential oils for aiding with cognitive function, agitation, behavioural issues, aggressiveness, memory enhancement and mood. Essential oils such as rosemary (Rosmarinum off. verbenon), peppermint (Mentha piperita) and lemon (Citrus limonum) are known to enhance memory and alertness. Oils such as lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), orange (citrus senensis) and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) are known for their sedative, calming and antidepressant properties.2 To increase alertness, I recommend oils such as rosemary, basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint and lemon. Oils to aid with sleep and restlessness include lavender, Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), neroli (Citrus aurantium amara) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata).

Also, research has shown that although there is an olfactory dysfunction in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the loss of one’s sense of smell does not affect the essential oils effectiveness, as they work at a physiological level. The oils are inhaled through and absorbed by the lungs and through the skin and are effective due to their chemical make up. It is believed that the loss of smell may be an early sign of Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases.

One of the most popular essential oils and one shown to be beneficial with Alzheimer’s, is lavender. A hand massage with lavender essential oil has shown to help with emotions and reduce aggressive behaviour in elderly with Alzheimer’s type dementia.3

In another study, lavender and orange were used in the evening, and rosemary and lemon used during the day with 28 patients with dementia, of which 17 had AD. All patients showed significant improvement in orientation related to cognitive function. Laboratory tests after this study showed that there were no side effects with the use of aromatherapy.4

Acetylcholinesterase, aka AChE, is the main target for many drugs to treat AD and dementia. AChE is an enzyme, which degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil and its compounds, thymol, linalool and carvacrol, were found inhibit AChE.5

In a placebo controlled, double blind study, sage (Salvia officinalis) and Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) have shown to increase the speed of memory and enhance mood.6 An earlier study showed that Spanish sage inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE).7 Black pine (Pinus nigra) has also shown to have AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity.8

Another placebo controlled trial with lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) was conducted in a health care facility to assess treatment for agitation in patients with severe dementia. Sixty percent of the active group showed a 30% decrease of their CMAI agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory) score.9

Some people who suffer from AD and other forms of dementia, experience Sundowner’s Symdrome, named so as these confusion symptoms appear after ‘sundown’. These symptoms can include restlessness, wandering, depression, agitation and hallucinations. Many of the essential oils mentioned can be used to aid with these symptoms.

Applications, which have been used successfully in nursing homes and at home, include inhalation of the essential oil, a room spray made with the appropriate hydrosols, use of the essential oils in a diffuser, adding a few drops to a bath or onto a pillow and a custom made inhaler for personal use. As more research and clinical trials are completed, aromatherapy (essential oil therapy) will become more recognized as an accepted and evidence based alternative to pharmaceutical drugs.

For those of you who have a family member with AD or are caring for one, there is an amount of stress involved in caring for your loved one and a feeling of helplessness. There are a number of essential oils to aid with stress, depression, anxiety and panic attacks.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP

1. Alzheimer Society http://www.alzheimer.ca
2. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang. Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L, Wesnes K. Int J Neurosci. 2008 Jan;118(1):59-77. PMID: 18041606
3. The effect of lavender aromatherapy on cognitive function, emotion, and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia. Lee SY. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2005 Apr;35(2):303-12. PMID:15860944
4. Effect of aromatherapy on patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Jimbo, D. Kimura, Y. Taniguchi, M. Inoue, M. Urakami, K. Psychogeriatrics. 2009 Dec;9(4):173-9. PMID: 20377818
5. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of thymol, carvacrol and their derivatives thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone. Jukic M, Politeo O, Maksimovic M, Milos M, Milos M. Phytother Res. 2007 Mar;21(3):259-61. PMID: 17186491
6. Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers. Tildesley NT, Kennedy DO, Perry EK, Ballard CG, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Physiol Behav. 2005 Jan 17;83(5):699-709. PMID: 15639154
7. In-vitro activity of S. lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) relevant to treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Perry NS, Houghton PJ, Sampson J, Theobald AE, Hart S, Lis-Balchin M, Hoult JR, Evans P, Jenner P, Milligan S, Perry EK. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 Oct;53(10):1347-56. PMID: 11697542
8. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Pinus species essential oils and their constituents. Bonesi M, Menichini F, Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Conforti F, Passalacqua NG, Statti GA, Menichini F. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2010 Oct;25(5):622-8. PMID: 20429778
9. Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa. Ballard CG, O’Brien JT, Reichelt K, Perry EK. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Jun;64(6):732; author reply 732. PMID: 12143909

Essential Oil Therapy for a natural and healthy pregnancy – Part 2

Labour

The essential oils of neroli (citrus aurantium) and lavender (lavandula angustifolia) can be used to help with fear and anxiety during your labour.1 If you have a long labour and fatigue has set in, the essential oils of peppermint (mentha piperita) and sage (salvia officinalis) can be used for energy or alertness.2 Also during a long labour, misting your face with the hydrosols of lavender, neroli or rose (rosa damascena), will refresh you. Use any hydrosol that you enjoy.

During labour, have your labour partner massage your lower back with the essential oils of chamomile (Roman – anthemis nobilis and/or German – matricaria chamomilla), clary sage (salvia sclarea) and lavender in a carrier oil. A compress with the essential oil and hydrosol of clary sage will greatly reduce labour pain when applied to the lower abdomen and back. If you are having a water birth, the EO and hydrosol can be added directly to the tub. One study has shown that the essential oils of clary sage and chamomile are effective in reducing pain during labour.3

Essential Oil Therapy during pregnancy:

  • – can help reduce stretch marks
  • – can help deal with stress and promote relaxation
  • – can ease cramping and pains experienced during pregnancy
  • – can help you keep in tune with your body and your baby
  • – can provide relief from ailments such as headaches, nausea, varicose veins and edema
  • – can aid in ‘recovery’ after childbirth

Postnatal

Applying hydrosols directly to the perineum, or adding essential oils to a sitz bath can aid discomfort and healing of the perineum. As some women find it uncomfortable to use the sitz bath method, a spray is a more convenient method of application. Applying witch hazel (hamamelis virginiana), lavender and chamomile hydrosols, with a cotton pad, can relieve hemorrhoids and aid in healing. For added relief, the cotton pad can be left in place. Some women have also found that it helps to place a pad in the freezer, with the spray applied, and using these for relief. A common chemical used to treat wounds, such as episiotomies, is Povidone-iodine. Clinical trials have shown lavender to be more effective.4

For women who have had a cesarean section, the essential oil of helichrysum (helichrysum italicum) has shown amazing results for skin regeneration and healing.5 There are a number of nutrient rich and essential oils, to help heal and decrease scar tissue, such as calendula (calendula officinalis) infused olive or sunflower oil.6 These oils can also helps with the healing of wounds, old and new scars and stretch marks.

If the baby blues have set in, postpartum depression can be helped with many citrus oils, which are anti-depressants and help with anxiety. Some of these oils include orange (citrus senensis), bermagot (citrus bergamia), neroli and grapefruit (citrus paradisii). Using the pure hydrosol of these plants help as well and can be used as a room or body spray. Aromatherapy massage has improved the physical and mental states of mothers and bonding with your baby.7

Engorged breasts can be helped with a compress of geranium, as well as a cabbage leaf being inserted into your bra. For cracked and sore nipples, calendula has amazing healing properties. For dry skin during breastfeeding, there are a number of essential and carrier oils that can be used.

Below is a summary of some of the essential oils and hydrosols, which can be used during pregnancy, and some of their benefits:

Calendula – skin irritations, minor infections, wound healing
Chamomile
– muscular pain, labour, morning sickness, perineum healing
Clary Sage
– muscular pain, headaches, labour
Cypress
– edema, prevent stretch marks
Ginger
– morning sickness
Juniper Berry
– edema
Lavender
– muscular pain, headaches, labour, stress, perineum healing
Mandarin
– prevent stretch marks, stress, and depression
Neroli
– anxiety, prevent stretch marks, depression
Peppermint
– headaches, morning sickness, nausea, alertness
Witch Hazel
– apply the hydrosol to hemorrhoids and varicose veins
Yarrow
– apply the hydrosol for postpartum healing

There has been some debate as to whether essential oils are safe for use during pregnancy and on babies. There are some essential oils, which are not recommended for use during the first trimester such as: rose, jasmine and chamomile, to name a few. Generally though, the use of flower and citrus oils can be considered safe for use throughout the entire pregnancy. You should consult with a certified aromatherapist to be sure. It’s best to check the label for any warnings and/or directions, as they are usually printed on commercially available essential oils. Note that there are many grades of essential oils and only therapeutic grade should be used. During pregnancy, you should use a dilution of 1-3% essential oil, or 3-9 drops in 15 ml (1 tablespoon) of carrier oil. That being said, as with all alternative forms of therapy and non-prescribed drugs, especially during pregnancy and on newborns, you should consult with your health care professional before use.

Please visit http://www.aromatichealthshop.ca/Mother/cat255520_181677.aspx for details about products for pre and postpartum health.

    Michelle Reynolds, CAHP
    _____________________________________________________________
    1. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. Carvalho-Freitas MI, Costa M. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Dec;25(12):1629-33. PMID: 12499653
    2. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang. Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L, Wesnes K. Int J Neurosci. 2008 Jan;118(1):59-77. PMID: 18041606
    3. The use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice an observational study. Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser SJ, Lloyd AJ, Barnetson L. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2000 Feb;6(1):33-4. PMID: 1103365

    4. Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: A clinical trial.
    Vakilian K, Atarha M, Bekhradi R, Chaman R. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011 Feb;17(1):50-3. PMID: 21168115
    5. Interactions of antibiotics and extracts of Helichrysum pedunculatum against bacteria implicated in wound infections. Aiyegoro OA, Afolayan AJ, Okoh AI. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2010 Mar;55(2):176-80. PMID: 20490761
    6. Efficacy of Hypericum and Calendula oils in the epithelial reconstruction of surgical wounds in childbirth with caesarean section. Lavagna SM, Secci D, Chimenti P, Bonsignore L, Ottaviani A, Bizzarri B. Farmaco. 2001 May-Jul;56(5-7):451-3. PMID: 11482776
    7. The psychological effects of aromatherapy-massage in healthy postpartum mothers. Imura M, Misao H, Ushijima H. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2006 Mar-Apr;51(2):e21-7. PMID: 16504900

Essential oils in the prevention of H1N1

This article was written last spring, when a growing number of people were concerned about the possibility of contracting the H1N1 (Swine) Flu. The essential oils mentioned here can be used for any type of ‘flu strain. What many are starting to discover is that there are a number of holistic alternatives to protect themselves and their families. For some there are personal reasons for avoiding vaccines, for which holistic remedies can provide a safe and natural alternative.

One such branch of holistic medicine that can aid in the fight against H1N1 is Essential Oil Therapy. Essential oils have many chemical properties, which have been shown to be an effective treatment, both preventative and post infection, against influenza. These chemical properties, such as being antiviral, antimicrobial and antiseptic, protect against influenza and/or shorten the duration of its symptoms.

For example, oils from the Myrtaceae family (niaouli, ravensara, tea tree) are effective against viruses, due to their high levels of terpenes, terpineol and cineole. Terpenes are antibacterial and antiseptic. Additional essential oils with antiviral, antimicrobial and/or antibacterial properties include cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus, lavender, peppermint, rosemary and thyme. Some of these same essential oils also help to boost the immune system, helping to protect you and your family from a myriad of ‘flu season viruses.

The wonderful thing about essential oil therapy (EOT) is that there are several methods to use and apply the essential oils, which, in most cases, mean that use and application of essential oils are both convenient and flexible. Some methods of application include using an aroma pot, which includes placing a few drops of oil in water and heating it; the oil evaporates into the air and is inhaled as well as attacking any airborne viruses; adding a few drops to the bath, which not only gives direct contact with your skin, but also allows for a relaxing method of inhalation; putting a few drops on your pillow at night, providing you with both inhalation and killing any viruses or bacteria found in and on your pillow; adding a few drops to a plain, unscented lotion and rubbing it onto the back, neck, chest and soles of the feet; or using an inhaler. Where the influenza virus is concerned, the best methods of application are through inhalation and/or topical application to the body.

A natural hand sanitizer can be made using aloe vera gel and 10% essential oils. Alcohol can also be added, but this may dry out your hands. Add 24 drops of essential oil to 240g of aloe vera gel and mix well. The gel can be put into small squeeze bottles and should be used within six months.

To prepare for this cold and ‘flu season, we have our Cold & Sinus formula with pure essential oils and the milder Children’s Cold & ‘Flu formula. Our two newest products, are an Antibacterial Spray and Cold & ‘Flu Essential Oil Inhaler.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP

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In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. Garozzo A, Timpanaro R, Bisignano B, Furneri PM, Bisignano G, Castro A.
Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. Fabrio A, Cermelli C, Fabio G, Nicoletti P, Quaglio P.
Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. Shigeharu Inouyea, Toshio Takizawab and Hideyo Yamaguchia.
Inhibitory effect of cinnamaldehyde, derived from Cinnamomi cortex, on the growth of influenza A/PR/8 virus in vitro and in vivo. Hayashi K, Imanishi N, Kashiwayama Y, Kawano A, Terasawa K, Shimada Y, Ochiai H.
Medical Aromatherapy, Kurt Schnaubelt, PhD.

Essential Oil Therapy for a natural and healthy pregnancy – Part 1

More and more pregnant women and new parents are looking for natural alternatives to prescription drugs. Although conventional medicine and medicines can be helpful in more extreme cases, for the more common ailments associated with child birth and parenting, natural alternatives like Essential Oil Therapy can prove to be just as, if not more, effective. Below are just a few ways that Essential Oil Therapy can help with a more natural pregnancy and childbirth.

Prenatal

Massaging yourself with nourishing carrier oils and the essential oils of neroli (citrus aurantium) and mandarin (citrus reticulata) during your pregnancy may help to reduce the chance of getting stretch marks, and alleviate dry, itchy skin. Be sure not to forget to massage your breasts and thighs, along with your growing belly. In an attempt to prevent striae gravidarum (stretch marks), a treated group who used a massage ointment was two thirds less likely to develop stretch marks, vs. a controlled group who was one third less likely to development stretch marks.1

If you are suffering from headaches and migraines, using essential oils can be a good alternative to conventional pain relievers. Essential oils such as peppermint (mentha piperita), chamomile (anthemis nobilis) and lavender (lavandula angustifolia), among others, in a carrier oil, can be used in a roll-on applicator, and applied to the temples and nape of the neck.2

The essential oils of peppermint, chamomile or ginger (zingiber officinalis) can be effective in relieving the nausea associated with morning sickness. Ginger  has been found to be more effective than vitamin B6 for relieving the severity of nausea and just as effective for decreasing the number of episodes.3 Ginger was also found to be as effective as dimenhydrinate  in treating nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.4 Pieces of dried ginger can be chewed or the capsules taken internally. Peppermint and/or chamomile tea can be drunk to ease nausea. Simply inhaling peppermint and ginger essential oils can ease the nausea for many women.

A warm bath with essential oils added, can soothe your sore muscles, help you to relax, and be emotionally uplifting as well. Research has confirmed that the mother’s emotional state affects the child, both pre and post natal. Massage yourself, or even better, have a partner massage you, to help with sore muscles, relaxation, strengthening the emotional bonds and help prevent fluid retention in your legs and feet.

For years, many midwives have recommended massaging your perineum daily during the last six weeks of pregnancy, to help reduce the chances of tearing or having an episiotomy. Three trials, involving more than 2,000 women, concluded that prenatal perineal massage reduces the chances of perineal trauma, mainly episiotomies, and ongoing perineal pain.5

A resource on how to perform the massage can be found at: http://parenting.ivillage.com/pregnancy/plabor/0,,midwife_46dl,00.html

For inflammation, acne and other skin issues, toners with lavender and chamomile hydrosols are soothing and calming to the skin. Many women see changes in their skin and some develop acne, similar to when they were in their teens.

Please visit http://www.aromatichealthshop.ca/Mother/cat255520_181677.aspx for details about products for pre and postpartum health.

Please look for Part 2, in using essential oils for Labour and Postpartum.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP
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1. Attempt of preventive treatment of striae gravidarum using preventive massage ointment administration. Wierrani F, Kozak W, Schramm W, Grünberger W. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1992;104(2):42-4. PMID: 1609525
2. Effect of peppermint and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysiological and experimental algesimetric headache parameters. Göbel H, Schmidt G, Soyka D. Cephalalgia. 1994 Jun;14(3):228-34; discussion 182. PMID: 7954745

3. Comparing ginger and vitamin B6 for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Ensiyeh J, Sakineh MA. Midwifery. 2008 Feb 11. PMID: 18272271
4. A randomized comparison of ginger and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Pongrojpaw D, Somprasit C, Chanthasenanont A. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Sep;90(9):1703-9. PMID: 17957907
5. Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma. Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD005123. PMID: 16437520

Essential Oil Therapy and Cancer

This article is one I’ve been meaning to write for some time. Six years ago, my mother was diagnosed with colorectal cancer. In an effort to help her ease the discomforts she had to endure, I spent countless hours researching essential oils and hydrosols to learn how they can be used to aid the symptoms of various cancers. I used a number of essential oils and hydrosols topically and internally with my Mum, to help ease the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation, calm her stress and anxiety levels, and alleviate her insomnia and nausea. Four years after her death, I feel that I’m able and ready to share some of that knowledge.

Cancer will be the world’s number one cause of death by the end of 2010. It is estimated that $1 billion USD is donated to cancer research each year. As Jeffrey Yuen once said, ‘We finance cancer by the amount we dread it’. Now if that money were to be spent on cancer prevention, how different would that statistic be?

It now seems as though our air, soil and water are filled with toxins, but there are factors we can control. If we were to improve our diets, exercise regularly, reduce some of our UV exposure and read the labels on the products we use, specifically personal care products, then we can reduce our risk. The Environment Working Group (EWG)1 reports that the average person uses 9 personal care products per day, which contain 126 chemical ingredients. For 1 out of 4 women, that number is 15 or higher. Choosing natural products and paying attention to the ingredients in the products you purchase, is one way to decrease these statistics. If you are unsure whether an ingredient is safe, the EWG has a website which lists over 25,000 personal care products and their safety level.2

For most people, aromatherapy does not usually come to mind, as a complimentary treatment, when someone hears that they have cancer. The oils are very powerful though and their effects are surprising even to those who believe that conventional treatment is the only option. Essential oils (EO’s) and hydrosols can also aid with the emotional and psychological issues that arise when faced with a life threatening diseases, such as cancer. Aromatherapy is just one holistic modality, meaning that you treat the whole person, not just the disease. EO’s and hydrosols, unlike conventional medications, are selected for the individual being treated, not as a one size fits all for general use.

It was once believed that any type of massage would promote cancer metastasis. Research now shows that massage can be very beneficial to those with cancer, specifically for managing pain and depression.3 The gentle massage used during an aromatherapy massage promotes relaxation and helps to eliminate toxins from the body. Even a simple hand massage can have a positive effect.4

The essential oils of grapefruit (citrus paradisii), orange (citrus senensis) and lemon (citrus limonum) contain D-limonene, which has shown to have anti-tumour properties5, chemotherapeutic activity and low toxicity.6 It is particularly beneficial for breast and colon cancer.7 Note that these citrus oils are phototoxic and should not be used topically on people with skin cancer. When possible, organic essential oils should be used. These citrus oils, as well as neroli essential oil, are also antidepressants and help with anxiety. The hydrosol of neroli can be used as a body, room or linen spray.

In addition to the citrus oils, other essential oils and hydrosols, which aid with side effects and killing of cancer cells include:

Ginger (zingiber officinalis) essential oil can be inhaled or taken internally in water, to ease nausea.8

The essential oil and hydrosol of frankincense (boswellia carteri) has shown anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity.9 & 11 Frankincense can also distinguish the difference between normal and cancerous cells and suppress cancer cell viability.10

Sweet fern (comptonia peregrina) and sweet gale (myrica gale) hydrosols can be combined and used topically as a compress or diluted in water and drank throughout the day. Both plants have shown to be cytotoxic (toxic to cells) against human lung and colon cancer cell lines. 12 & 13

Greenland moss, aka Labrador Tea (ledum greonlandicum) is one of the most powerful therapeutic hydrosols and only needs to be about 10% of the blend to be effective.14 It is currently in experimental stages for use with liver cancer and has shown anticancer activity against malignant lung and colon tumours.15 Marsh Labrador Tea has also been shown to protect against gamma radiation.

The hydrosol of niaouli (melaleuca quinquinervia CT viridiflorol) can be used if you are undergoing radiation treatmentto help to prevent burns and protect the skin.14

Vitamin D also plays an important part in our health. There have been numerous studies which show that vitamin D supplementation aids with cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal health, autoimmunity and cancer. A study release this month showed that a vitamin D deficiency enhances the growth of tumours.

My main focus has been on the essential oils and hydrosols I had used with my mother, to ease her symptoms. There is also research available on the use of essential oils and hydrosols for bladder, breast, liver, lung, prostate and skin cancers and the treatment of malodorous ulcers.

I am not claiming that essential oils and hydrosols will cure cancer, but they will aid with the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation and have shown to kill cancer cells. Throughout the majority of my mother’s treatments, while she was taking the citrus and ginger essential oils, and Greenland moss and sweet gale hydrosols, she was still able to enjoy life. She was able to go salsa dancing which was a passion of hers. She felt free while dancing, and no one could tell she was ill. I believe this speaks volumes for how much the essential oils and hydrosols helped her to overcome the side effects of her chemotherapy and radiation treatments.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP
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1. Environmental Working Group: http://www.EWG.org
2. Skin Deep – Cosmetic Database: http://www.cosmeticsdatabase.com
3. A Review on the Effects of Aromatherapy for Patients with Depressive Symptoms. Yim VW, Ng AK, Tsang HW, Leung AY. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Feb 13. PMID: 19216657
4. Effects of aroma handmassage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer. Chang SY. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2008 Aug;38(4):493-502. PMID: 18753801
5. Identification and characterization of limonene metabolites in patients with advanced cancer by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Poon GK, Vigushin D, Griggs LJ, Rowlands MG, Coombes RC, Jarman M. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 May;24(5):565-71. PMID: 8723738
6. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of D-limonene inpatients with advanced cancer. Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Clinical Trials Committee. Vigushin DM, Poon GK, Boddy A, English J, Halbert GW, Pagonis C, Jarman M, Coombes RC. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1998;42(2):111-7. PMID: 9654110
7. Medical Aromatherapy, Healing with Essential Oils. Kurt Schnaubelt, M.D.
8. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study. Hickok JT, Roscoe JA, Morrow GR, Ryan JL. Support Cancer Ther. 2007 Sep 1;4(4):247-50. PMID: 18632524
9. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra. Mothana RA, Lindequist U, Gruenert R, Bednarski PJ. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Mar 25;9:7. PMID: 19320966
10. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity. Frank MB, Yang Q, Osban J, Azzarello JT, Saban MR, Saban R, Ashley RA, Welter JC, Fung KM, Lin HK. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Mar 18;9:6. PMID: 19296830
11. LY294002 enhances boswellic acid-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Liu JJ, Duan RD. Anticancer Res. 2009 Aug;29(8):2987-91. PMID: 19661305
12. Composition and cytotoxic activity of the leaf essential oil of Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter. Sylvestre M, Pichette A, Lavoie S, Longtin A, Legault J. Phytother Res. 2007 Jun;21(6):536-40. PMID: 17326040
13. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of leaf essential oil of Myrica gale L. Sylvestre M, Legault J, Dufour D, Pichette A. Phytomedicine. 2005 Apr;12(4):299-304. PMID: 15898708
14. Hydrosols: The Next Aromatherapy. Suzanne Catty. Healing Arts Press, 2001.
15. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of methanolic extracts from Ledum groenlandicum Retzius. Dufour D, Pichette A, Mshvildadze V, Bradette-Hébert ME, Lavoie S, Longtin A, Laprise C, Legault J. Phytomedicine. 2005 Apr;12(4):299-304. PMID: 15898708

Essential Oil Therapy; treating ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder. Note that the term ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) is no longer used. ADHD is now classified into three categories, one of which is formerly known as ADD, and is based on three core symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. There are a number of chemical properties in certain essential oils, which may be effective in treating ADHD. These oils include basil, cedarwood, chamomile, frankincense, lavender, mandarin, melissa, neroli, rosemary, sandalwood, vetiver and ylang ylang. Below are some of the essential oils best suited for treating ADHD:

  • Basil (ocimum basilicum); a cerebral stimulant, enhances concentration and aids with mental fatigue.
  • Cedarwood (cedrus atlantica); a sedative, has a relaxant affect on the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
  • Frankincense (boswellia carteri); also contains sedative properties, can be used for nervous tension and anxiety, and is often used during meditation.
  • Lavender (lavandula angustifolia); one of the most popular oils and is known for it’s sedative, calming and soothing properties.
  • Mandarin and Neroli (citrus reticulata/aurantium) essential oils; known for their anxiolytic properties, which relieve stress, anxiety and depression.
  • Vetiver (vetiveria zizanoides); a sedative for the nervous system, is used for stress related ailments and is very relaxing.

A pure essential oil blend, which may be effective in working with ADHD, is our Mental Clarity inhaler. This product contains peppermint, rosemary, lemon and basil essential oils, in an essential oil inhaler, which is a convenient way to use essential oils, especially for children. This particular blend of essential oils are known to aid with concentration, memory and retention, and alertness. There are also a number of applications in which essential oils can be effective. If a pure essential oil blend is being used, a few drops can be added to the bath, to a carrier oil or to a natural, unscented lotion and then massaged onto your back, chest and feet. Essential oils can also be added to a diffuser, or a few drops put on your pillowcase, a cotton ball or tissue.

The same combination of essential oils will not be effective for everyone. Certain oils compliment each other and their synergy enhances the effect of the other oils. Each of us are unique, which is why a custom formula may be right for you. As well, take a close look at your child’s, or your own, diet, environment, stress levels, and happiness, which all have an affect on their/your behaviour. In the end, it may not be ADHD at all. Research related to nutrition shows that a diet high in essential fatty acids and vitamin C improves the symptoms of ADHD. Another study published in The Lancet medical journal, has shown that artificial food colouring and additives have been linked to ADHD like behaviour.

Essential oil therapy can be an effective complementary treatment for ADHD. Along with a proper diet and a healthy lifestyle, the symptoms of ADHD can be greatly reduced, and for some totally eliminated. Please visit our website (http://www.aromatichealth.ca) to view our Mental Clarity inhaler. Should you feel that you need a custom formula for you and your specific needs, feel free to contact us at info@aromatichealth.ca.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP
http://www.aromatichealth.ca

 


1. CADDAC – Centre for ADHD/ADD Advocacy, Canada http://www.caddac.ca
2. Medical Aromatherapy, Healing with Essential Oils. Kurt Schnaubelt, M.D.
3. Autonomic responses during inhalation of natural fragrance of Cedrol in humans. Dayawansa S, Umeno K, Takakura H, Hori E, Tabuchi E, Nagashima Y, Oosu H, Yada Y, Suzuki T, Ono T, Nishijo H. Auton Neurosci. 2003 Oct 31;108(1-2):79-86.PMID: 14614968
4. Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer Chang SY. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2008 Aug;38(4):493-502. Korean. PMID: 18753801
5. Stimulative and sedative effects of essential oils upon inhalation. Lim WC, Seo JM, Lee CI, Pyo HB, Lee BC. Arch Pharm Res. 2005 Jul;28(7):770-4.PMID: 16114490
6. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Setzer WN. Nat Prod Commun. 2009 Sep;4(9):1305-16. Review.PMID: 19831048
7. Observational study: Matricaria chamomilla may improve some symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Phytomedicine. 2009 Apr;16(4):284-6. Epub 2008 Dec 20. Niederhofer H.
8. Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Jan;74(1):17-21. Epub 2005 Nov 28.
9. Essential fatty acids and the brain. Haag M. Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;48(3):195-203. Review.PMID: 12728744
10. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial . The Lancet, Volume 370, Issue 9598, Pages 1560 – 1567, 3 November 2007