Essential Oil Therapy for a natural and healthy pregnancy – Part 2

Labour

The essential oils of neroli (citrus aurantium) and lavender (lavandula angustifolia) can be used to help with fear and anxiety during your labour.1 If you have a long labour and fatigue has set in, the essential oils of peppermint (mentha piperita) and sage (salvia officinalis) can be used for energy or alertness.2 Also during a long labour, misting your face with the hydrosols of lavender, neroli or rose (rosa damascena), will refresh you. Use any hydrosol that you enjoy.

During labour, have your labour partner massage your lower back with the essential oils of chamomile (Roman – anthemis nobilis and/or German – matricaria chamomilla), clary sage (salvia sclarea) and lavender in a carrier oil. A compress with the essential oil and hydrosol of clary sage will greatly reduce labour pain when applied to the lower abdomen and back. If you are having a water birth, the EO and hydrosol can be added directly to the tub. One study has shown that the essential oils of clary sage and chamomile are effective in reducing pain during labour.3

Essential Oil Therapy during pregnancy:

  • – can help reduce stretch marks
  • – can help deal with stress and promote relaxation
  • – can ease cramping and pains experienced during pregnancy
  • – can help you keep in tune with your body and your baby
  • – can provide relief from ailments such as headaches, nausea, varicose veins and edema
  • – can aid in ‘recovery’ after childbirth

Postnatal

Applying hydrosols directly to the perineum, or adding essential oils to a sitz bath can aid discomfort and healing of the perineum. As some women find it uncomfortable to use the sitz bath method, a spray is a more convenient method of application. Applying witch hazel (hamamelis virginiana), lavender and chamomile hydrosols, with a cotton pad, can relieve hemorrhoids and aid in healing. For added relief, the cotton pad can be left in place. Some women have also found that it helps to place a pad in the freezer, with the spray applied, and using these for relief. A common chemical used to treat wounds, such as episiotomies, is Povidone-iodine. Clinical trials have shown lavender to be more effective.4

For women who have had a cesarean section, the essential oil of helichrysum (helichrysum italicum) has shown amazing results for skin regeneration and healing.5 There are a number of nutrient rich and essential oils, to help heal and decrease scar tissue, such as calendula (calendula officinalis) infused olive or sunflower oil.6 These oils can also helps with the healing of wounds, old and new scars and stretch marks.

If the baby blues have set in, postpartum depression can be helped with many citrus oils, which are anti-depressants and help with anxiety. Some of these oils include orange (citrus senensis), bermagot (citrus bergamia), neroli and grapefruit (citrus paradisii). Using the pure hydrosol of these plants help as well and can be used as a room or body spray. Aromatherapy massage has improved the physical and mental states of mothers and bonding with your baby.7

Engorged breasts can be helped with a compress of geranium, as well as a cabbage leaf being inserted into your bra. For cracked and sore nipples, calendula has amazing healing properties. For dry skin during breastfeeding, there are a number of essential and carrier oils that can be used.

Below is a summary of some of the essential oils and hydrosols, which can be used during pregnancy, and some of their benefits:

Calendula – skin irritations, minor infections, wound healing
Chamomile
– muscular pain, labour, morning sickness, perineum healing
Clary Sage
– muscular pain, headaches, labour
Cypress
– edema, prevent stretch marks
Ginger
– morning sickness
Juniper Berry
– edema
Lavender
– muscular pain, headaches, labour, stress, perineum healing
Mandarin
– prevent stretch marks, stress, and depression
Neroli
– anxiety, prevent stretch marks, depression
Peppermint
– headaches, morning sickness, nausea, alertness
Witch Hazel
– apply the hydrosol to hemorrhoids and varicose veins
Yarrow
– apply the hydrosol for postpartum healing

There has been some debate as to whether essential oils are safe for use during pregnancy and on babies. There are some essential oils, which are not recommended for use during the first trimester such as: rose, jasmine and chamomile, to name a few. Generally though, the use of flower and citrus oils can be considered safe for use throughout the entire pregnancy. You should consult with a certified aromatherapist to be sure. It’s best to check the label for any warnings and/or directions, as they are usually printed on commercially available essential oils. Note that there are many grades of essential oils and only therapeutic grade should be used. During pregnancy, you should use a dilution of 1-3% essential oil, or 3-9 drops in 15 ml (1 tablespoon) of carrier oil. That being said, as with all alternative forms of therapy and non-prescribed drugs, especially during pregnancy and on newborns, you should consult with your health care professional before use.

Please visit http://www.aromatichealthshop.ca/Mother/cat255520_181677.aspx for details about products for pre and postpartum health.

    Michelle Reynolds, CAHP
    _____________________________________________________________
    1. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. Carvalho-Freitas MI, Costa M. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Dec;25(12):1629-33. PMID: 12499653
    2. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang. Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L, Wesnes K. Int J Neurosci. 2008 Jan;118(1):59-77. PMID: 18041606
    3. The use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice an observational study. Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser SJ, Lloyd AJ, Barnetson L. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2000 Feb;6(1):33-4. PMID: 1103365

    4. Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: A clinical trial.
    Vakilian K, Atarha M, Bekhradi R, Chaman R. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011 Feb;17(1):50-3. PMID: 21168115
    5. Interactions of antibiotics and extracts of Helichrysum pedunculatum against bacteria implicated in wound infections. Aiyegoro OA, Afolayan AJ, Okoh AI. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2010 Mar;55(2):176-80. PMID: 20490761
    6. Efficacy of Hypericum and Calendula oils in the epithelial reconstruction of surgical wounds in childbirth with caesarean section. Lavagna SM, Secci D, Chimenti P, Bonsignore L, Ottaviani A, Bizzarri B. Farmaco. 2001 May-Jul;56(5-7):451-3. PMID: 11482776
    7. The psychological effects of aromatherapy-massage in healthy postpartum mothers. Imura M, Misao H, Ushijima H. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2006 Mar-Apr;51(2):e21-7. PMID: 16504900

Essential oils in the prevention of H1N1

This article was written last spring, when a growing number of people were concerned about the possibility of contracting the H1N1 (Swine) Flu. The essential oils mentioned here can be used for any type of ‘flu strain. What many are starting to discover is that there are a number of holistic alternatives to protect themselves and their families. For some there are personal reasons for avoiding vaccines, for which holistic remedies can provide a safe and natural alternative.

One such branch of holistic medicine that can aid in the fight against H1N1 is Essential Oil Therapy. Essential oils have many chemical properties, which have been shown to be an effective treatment, both preventative and post infection, against influenza. These chemical properties, such as being antiviral, antimicrobial and antiseptic, protect against influenza and/or shorten the duration of its symptoms.

For example, oils from the Myrtaceae family (niaouli, ravensara, tea tree) are effective against viruses, due to their high levels of terpenes, terpineol and cineole. Terpenes are antibacterial and antiseptic. Additional essential oils with antiviral, antimicrobial and/or antibacterial properties include cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus, lavender, peppermint, rosemary and thyme. Some of these same essential oils also help to boost the immune system, helping to protect you and your family from a myriad of ‘flu season viruses.

The wonderful thing about essential oil therapy (EOT) is that there are several methods to use and apply the essential oils, which, in most cases, mean that use and application of essential oils are both convenient and flexible. Some methods of application include using an aroma pot, which includes placing a few drops of oil in water and heating it; the oil evaporates into the air and is inhaled as well as attacking any airborne viruses; adding a few drops to the bath, which not only gives direct contact with your skin, but also allows for a relaxing method of inhalation; putting a few drops on your pillow at night, providing you with both inhalation and killing any viruses or bacteria found in and on your pillow; adding a few drops to a plain, unscented lotion and rubbing it onto the back, neck, chest and soles of the feet; or using an inhaler. Where the influenza virus is concerned, the best methods of application are through inhalation and/or topical application to the body.

A natural hand sanitizer can be made using aloe vera gel and 10% essential oils. Alcohol can also be added, but this may dry out your hands. Add 24 drops of essential oil to 240g of aloe vera gel and mix well. The gel can be put into small squeeze bottles and should be used within six months.

To prepare for this cold and ‘flu season, we have our Cold & Sinus formula with pure essential oils and the milder Children’s Cold & ‘Flu formula. Our two newest products, are an Antibacterial Spray and Cold & ‘Flu Essential Oil Inhaler.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP

_________________________________________________________________

In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. Garozzo A, Timpanaro R, Bisignano B, Furneri PM, Bisignano G, Castro A.
Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. Fabrio A, Cermelli C, Fabio G, Nicoletti P, Quaglio P.
Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. Shigeharu Inouyea, Toshio Takizawab and Hideyo Yamaguchia.
Inhibitory effect of cinnamaldehyde, derived from Cinnamomi cortex, on the growth of influenza A/PR/8 virus in vitro and in vivo. Hayashi K, Imanishi N, Kashiwayama Y, Kawano A, Terasawa K, Shimada Y, Ochiai H.
Medical Aromatherapy, Kurt Schnaubelt, PhD.

Essential Oil Therapy for a natural and healthy pregnancy – Part 1

More and more pregnant women and new parents are looking for natural alternatives to prescription drugs. Although conventional medicine and medicines can be helpful in more extreme cases, for the more common ailments associated with child birth and parenting, natural alternatives like Essential Oil Therapy can prove to be just as, if not more, effective. Below are just a few ways that Essential Oil Therapy can help with a more natural pregnancy and childbirth.

Prenatal

Massaging yourself with nourishing carrier oils and the essential oils of neroli (citrus aurantium) and mandarin (citrus reticulata) during your pregnancy may help to reduce the chance of getting stretch marks, and alleviate dry, itchy skin. Be sure not to forget to massage your breasts and thighs, along with your growing belly. In an attempt to prevent striae gravidarum (stretch marks), a treated group who used a massage ointment was two thirds less likely to develop stretch marks, vs. a controlled group who was one third less likely to development stretch marks.1

If you are suffering from headaches and migraines, using essential oils can be a good alternative to conventional pain relievers. Essential oils such as peppermint (mentha piperita), chamomile (anthemis nobilis) and lavender (lavandula angustifolia), among others, in a carrier oil, can be used in a roll-on applicator, and applied to the temples and nape of the neck.2

The essential oils of peppermint, chamomile or ginger (zingiber officinalis) can be effective in relieving the nausea associated with morning sickness. Ginger  has been found to be more effective than vitamin B6 for relieving the severity of nausea and just as effective for decreasing the number of episodes.3 Ginger was also found to be as effective as dimenhydrinate  in treating nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.4 Pieces of dried ginger can be chewed or the capsules taken internally. Peppermint and/or chamomile tea can be drunk to ease nausea. Simply inhaling peppermint and ginger essential oils can ease the nausea for many women.

A warm bath with essential oils added, can soothe your sore muscles, help you to relax, and be emotionally uplifting as well. Research has confirmed that the mother’s emotional state affects the child, both pre and post natal. Massage yourself, or even better, have a partner massage you, to help with sore muscles, relaxation, strengthening the emotional bonds and help prevent fluid retention in your legs and feet.

For years, many midwives have recommended massaging your perineum daily during the last six weeks of pregnancy, to help reduce the chances of tearing or having an episiotomy. Three trials, involving more than 2,000 women, concluded that prenatal perineal massage reduces the chances of perineal trauma, mainly episiotomies, and ongoing perineal pain.5

A resource on how to perform the massage can be found at: http://parenting.ivillage.com/pregnancy/plabor/0,,midwife_46dl,00.html

For inflammation, acne and other skin issues, toners with lavender and chamomile hydrosols are soothing and calming to the skin. Many women see changes in their skin and some develop acne, similar to when they were in their teens.

Please visit http://www.aromatichealthshop.ca/Mother/cat255520_181677.aspx for details about products for pre and postpartum health.

Please look for Part 2, in using essential oils for Labour and Postpartum.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP
_____________________________________________________________
1. Attempt of preventive treatment of striae gravidarum using preventive massage ointment administration. Wierrani F, Kozak W, Schramm W, Grünberger W. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1992;104(2):42-4. PMID: 1609525
2. Effect of peppermint and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysiological and experimental algesimetric headache parameters. Göbel H, Schmidt G, Soyka D. Cephalalgia. 1994 Jun;14(3):228-34; discussion 182. PMID: 7954745

3. Comparing ginger and vitamin B6 for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Ensiyeh J, Sakineh MA. Midwifery. 2008 Feb 11. PMID: 18272271
4. A randomized comparison of ginger and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Pongrojpaw D, Somprasit C, Chanthasenanont A. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Sep;90(9):1703-9. PMID: 17957907
5. Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma. Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD005123. PMID: 16437520

Essential Oil Therapy and Cancer

This article is one I’ve been meaning to write for some time. Six years ago, my mother was diagnosed with colorectal cancer. In an effort to help her ease the discomforts she had to endure, I spent countless hours researching essential oils and hydrosols to learn how they can be used to aid the symptoms of various cancers. I used a number of essential oils and hydrosols topically and internally with my Mum, to help ease the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation, calm her stress and anxiety levels, and alleviate her insomnia and nausea. Four years after her death, I feel that I’m able and ready to share some of that knowledge.

Cancer will be the world’s number one cause of death by the end of 2010. It is estimated that $1 billion USD is donated to cancer research each year. As Jeffrey Yuen once said, ‘We finance cancer by the amount we dread it’. Now if that money were to be spent on cancer prevention, how different would that statistic be?

It now seems as though our air, soil and water are filled with toxins, but there are factors we can control. If we were to improve our diets, exercise regularly, reduce some of our UV exposure and read the labels on the products we use, specifically personal care products, then we can reduce our risk. The Environment Working Group (EWG)1 reports that the average person uses 9 personal care products per day, which contain 126 chemical ingredients. For 1 out of 4 women, that number is 15 or higher. Choosing natural products and paying attention to the ingredients in the products you purchase, is one way to decrease these statistics. If you are unsure whether an ingredient is safe, the EWG has a website which lists over 25,000 personal care products and their safety level.2

For most people, aromatherapy does not usually come to mind, as a complimentary treatment, when someone hears that they have cancer. The oils are very powerful though and their effects are surprising even to those who believe that conventional treatment is the only option. Essential oils (EO’s) and hydrosols can also aid with the emotional and psychological issues that arise when faced with a life threatening diseases, such as cancer. Aromatherapy is just one holistic modality, meaning that you treat the whole person, not just the disease. EO’s and hydrosols, unlike conventional medications, are selected for the individual being treated, not as a one size fits all for general use.

It was once believed that any type of massage would promote cancer metastasis. Research now shows that massage can be very beneficial to those with cancer, specifically for managing pain and depression.3 The gentle massage used during an aromatherapy massage promotes relaxation and helps to eliminate toxins from the body. Even a simple hand massage can have a positive effect.4

The essential oils of grapefruit (citrus paradisii), orange (citrus senensis) and lemon (citrus limonum) contain D-limonene, which has shown to have anti-tumour properties5, chemotherapeutic activity and low toxicity.6 It is particularly beneficial for breast and colon cancer.7 Note that these citrus oils are phototoxic and should not be used topically on people with skin cancer. When possible, organic essential oils should be used. These citrus oils, as well as neroli essential oil, are also antidepressants and help with anxiety. The hydrosol of neroli can be used as a body, room or linen spray.

In addition to the citrus oils, other essential oils and hydrosols, which aid with side effects and killing of cancer cells include:

Ginger (zingiber officinalis) essential oil can be inhaled or taken internally in water, to ease nausea.8

The essential oil and hydrosol of frankincense (boswellia carteri) has shown anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity.9 & 11 Frankincense can also distinguish the difference between normal and cancerous cells and suppress cancer cell viability.10

Sweet fern (comptonia peregrina) and sweet gale (myrica gale) hydrosols can be combined and used topically as a compress or diluted in water and drank throughout the day. Both plants have shown to be cytotoxic (toxic to cells) against human lung and colon cancer cell lines. 12 & 13

Greenland moss, aka Labrador Tea (ledum greonlandicum) is one of the most powerful therapeutic hydrosols and only needs to be about 10% of the blend to be effective.14 It is currently in experimental stages for use with liver cancer and has shown anticancer activity against malignant lung and colon tumours.15 Marsh Labrador Tea has also been shown to protect against gamma radiation.

The hydrosol of niaouli (melaleuca quinquinervia CT viridiflorol) can be used if you are undergoing radiation treatmentto help to prevent burns and protect the skin.14

Vitamin D also plays an important part in our health. There have been numerous studies which show that vitamin D supplementation aids with cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal health, autoimmunity and cancer. A study release this month showed that a vitamin D deficiency enhances the growth of tumours.

My main focus has been on the essential oils and hydrosols I had used with my mother, to ease her symptoms. There is also research available on the use of essential oils and hydrosols for bladder, breast, liver, lung, prostate and skin cancers and the treatment of malodorous ulcers.

I am not claiming that essential oils and hydrosols will cure cancer, but they will aid with the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation and have shown to kill cancer cells. Throughout the majority of my mother’s treatments, while she was taking the citrus and ginger essential oils, and Greenland moss and sweet gale hydrosols, she was still able to enjoy life. She was able to go salsa dancing which was a passion of hers. She felt free while dancing, and no one could tell she was ill. I believe this speaks volumes for how much the essential oils and hydrosols helped her to overcome the side effects of her chemotherapy and radiation treatments.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP
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1. Environmental Working Group: http://www.EWG.org
2. Skin Deep – Cosmetic Database: http://www.cosmeticsdatabase.com
3. A Review on the Effects of Aromatherapy for Patients with Depressive Symptoms. Yim VW, Ng AK, Tsang HW, Leung AY. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Feb 13. PMID: 19216657
4. Effects of aroma handmassage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer. Chang SY. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2008 Aug;38(4):493-502. PMID: 18753801
5. Identification and characterization of limonene metabolites in patients with advanced cancer by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Poon GK, Vigushin D, Griggs LJ, Rowlands MG, Coombes RC, Jarman M. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 May;24(5):565-71. PMID: 8723738
6. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of D-limonene inpatients with advanced cancer. Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Clinical Trials Committee. Vigushin DM, Poon GK, Boddy A, English J, Halbert GW, Pagonis C, Jarman M, Coombes RC. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1998;42(2):111-7. PMID: 9654110
7. Medical Aromatherapy, Healing with Essential Oils. Kurt Schnaubelt, M.D.
8. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study. Hickok JT, Roscoe JA, Morrow GR, Ryan JL. Support Cancer Ther. 2007 Sep 1;4(4):247-50. PMID: 18632524
9. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra. Mothana RA, Lindequist U, Gruenert R, Bednarski PJ. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Mar 25;9:7. PMID: 19320966
10. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity. Frank MB, Yang Q, Osban J, Azzarello JT, Saban MR, Saban R, Ashley RA, Welter JC, Fung KM, Lin HK. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Mar 18;9:6. PMID: 19296830
11. LY294002 enhances boswellic acid-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Liu JJ, Duan RD. Anticancer Res. 2009 Aug;29(8):2987-91. PMID: 19661305
12. Composition and cytotoxic activity of the leaf essential oil of Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter. Sylvestre M, Pichette A, Lavoie S, Longtin A, Legault J. Phytother Res. 2007 Jun;21(6):536-40. PMID: 17326040
13. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of leaf essential oil of Myrica gale L. Sylvestre M, Legault J, Dufour D, Pichette A. Phytomedicine. 2005 Apr;12(4):299-304. PMID: 15898708
14. Hydrosols: The Next Aromatherapy. Suzanne Catty. Healing Arts Press, 2001.
15. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of methanolic extracts from Ledum groenlandicum Retzius. Dufour D, Pichette A, Mshvildadze V, Bradette-Hébert ME, Lavoie S, Longtin A, Laprise C, Legault J. Phytomedicine. 2005 Apr;12(4):299-304. PMID: 15898708

Essential Oil Therapy; treating ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder. Note that the term ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) is no longer used. ADHD is now classified into three categories, one of which is formerly known as ADD, and is based on three core symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. There are a number of chemical properties in certain essential oils, which may be effective in treating ADHD. These oils include basil, cedarwood, chamomile, frankincense, lavender, mandarin, melissa, neroli, rosemary, sandalwood, vetiver and ylang ylang. Below are some of the essential oils best suited for treating ADHD:

  • Basil (ocimum basilicum); a cerebral stimulant, enhances concentration and aids with mental fatigue.
  • Cedarwood (cedrus atlantica); a sedative, has a relaxant affect on the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
  • Frankincense (boswellia carteri); also contains sedative properties, can be used for nervous tension and anxiety, and is often used during meditation.
  • Lavender (lavandula angustifolia); one of the most popular oils and is known for it’s sedative, calming and soothing properties.
  • Mandarin and Neroli (citrus reticulata/aurantium) essential oils; known for their anxiolytic properties, which relieve stress, anxiety and depression.
  • Vetiver (vetiveria zizanoides); a sedative for the nervous system, is used for stress related ailments and is very relaxing.

A pure essential oil blend, which may be effective in working with ADHD, is our Mental Clarity inhaler. This product contains peppermint, rosemary, lemon and basil essential oils, in an essential oil inhaler, which is a convenient way to use essential oils, especially for children. This particular blend of essential oils are known to aid with concentration, memory and retention, and alertness. There are also a number of applications in which essential oils can be effective. If a pure essential oil blend is being used, a few drops can be added to the bath, to a carrier oil or to a natural, unscented lotion and then massaged onto your back, chest and feet. Essential oils can also be added to a diffuser, or a few drops put on your pillowcase, a cotton ball or tissue.

The same combination of essential oils will not be effective for everyone. Certain oils compliment each other and their synergy enhances the effect of the other oils. Each of us are unique, which is why a custom formula may be right for you. As well, take a close look at your child’s, or your own, diet, environment, stress levels, and happiness, which all have an affect on their/your behaviour. In the end, it may not be ADHD at all. Research related to nutrition shows that a diet high in essential fatty acids and vitamin C improves the symptoms of ADHD. Another study published in The Lancet medical journal, has shown that artificial food colouring and additives have been linked to ADHD like behaviour.

Essential oil therapy can be an effective complementary treatment for ADHD. Along with a proper diet and a healthy lifestyle, the symptoms of ADHD can be greatly reduced, and for some totally eliminated. Please visit our website (http://www.aromatichealth.ca) to view our Mental Clarity inhaler. Should you feel that you need a custom formula for you and your specific needs, feel free to contact us at info@aromatichealth.ca.

Michelle Reynolds, CAHP
http://www.aromatichealth.ca

 


1. CADDAC – Centre for ADHD/ADD Advocacy, Canada http://www.caddac.ca
2. Medical Aromatherapy, Healing with Essential Oils. Kurt Schnaubelt, M.D.
3. Autonomic responses during inhalation of natural fragrance of Cedrol in humans. Dayawansa S, Umeno K, Takakura H, Hori E, Tabuchi E, Nagashima Y, Oosu H, Yada Y, Suzuki T, Ono T, Nishijo H. Auton Neurosci. 2003 Oct 31;108(1-2):79-86.PMID: 14614968
4. Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer Chang SY. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2008 Aug;38(4):493-502. Korean. PMID: 18753801
5. Stimulative and sedative effects of essential oils upon inhalation. Lim WC, Seo JM, Lee CI, Pyo HB, Lee BC. Arch Pharm Res. 2005 Jul;28(7):770-4.PMID: 16114490
6. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Setzer WN. Nat Prod Commun. 2009 Sep;4(9):1305-16. Review.PMID: 19831048
7. Observational study: Matricaria chamomilla may improve some symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Phytomedicine. 2009 Apr;16(4):284-6. Epub 2008 Dec 20. Niederhofer H.
8. Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Jan;74(1):17-21. Epub 2005 Nov 28.
9. Essential fatty acids and the brain. Haag M. Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;48(3):195-203. Review.PMID: 12728744
10. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial . The Lancet, Volume 370, Issue 9598, Pages 1560 – 1567, 3 November 2007